Sometimes regarded as the central processing unit (CPU) or the processor.
It is the most important component of the computer since it is the center of all processing, control and coordination functions in the computer hence also regarded as the brain of a computer.
The CPU is mounted on a computer’s circut/ system board known as mother board.
The CPU does all its operations in coordination with three sub units inside it namely
- Control unit
- Arithmetic and logic unit
- Main memory.
To illucidate on the above components.
The control unit does the coordination of all processing acticities in the CPU, as well as input, storage, and output operations.
For better performance results of the CPU and CU then a high speed system clock is recommended. Clock speed is measured according to the number of pulses per second. The SI unit used is usually hertz
The second component is the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) which does all the arithmetic functions; multiplication, addition, subtraction and division functions and also the logical operations which is the state of comparing situations/ values i.e greater than or equals to.
ALU uses registers to hold data temporarily just before processing.
Lastly, main memory or the primary storage is a storage type that is accessed directly by the CPU.
The two main memories in a computer are
- Read Only Memory – as the name suggests it only allows reading of data but not writing on it unless it’s a special kind of ROM
- Random Access Memory – is a working memory since it is in this memory that programs are held temporarily as they run. Ones the computer is turned off, its data is lost.
Memory capacities are measured in bytes. The least capacity is a bit >byte >kilobyte >megabyte >gigabyte >terabyte
Components of the cpu communicate by sending electrical signals via electrical pathways known as bus.
The three electrical links/ mediums in the CPU are
- Address bus – locate storage location in memory.
- Control bus – does the controlling and timing functions sent by the control unit to other parts of the system.
- Data – where the actual data transfer takes place.
microprocessors are pertented by the Intel corporation company.
Since the manufacturing of the thermionic valves, companies have come a long way to developing very high speed processors such as AMD A8-7670K.